Paul Krugman has done a little digging into the effects of trade on manufacturing employment in the U.S. Overall, he concludes that,
How much of a role did trade play in the long-term decline in the manufacturing share of total employment, which fell from around a quarter of the work force in 1970 to 9 percent in 2015? The answer is, something, but not much.
From Larry Summers,
Job destruction caused by technology is not a futuristic concern. It is something we have been living with for two generations.
That is according to a new article in The Economist,
For many pro-life politicians, the answer to high abortion rates is to make abortion illegal or harder to get. Donald Trump, a recent convert to the pro-life cause, has vowed to appoint a conservative to America’s Supreme Court. Many religious leaders fulminate against abortion, although Pope Francis softened the Catholic church’s line slightly on November 20th. Abortion remains a grave sin, but penitent women can now be forgiven by parish priests and do not have to go to a bishop.
Studies of Western countries suggest that few women who have had an abortion regret their choice. Although women with pre-existing mental-health problems can see them worsen following an abortion, such problems also tend to worsen if they carry an unwanted baby to term. But in poor countries, where sterile rooms and well-trained doctors are in short supply, even legal surgical abortions can be risky. In the West less than 1% of abortions carried out by manual vacuum aspiration are followed by complications. In Bangladesh the share is 12%.
And perhaps most importantly,
Contraception also offers an excellent return on public investment. An abortion costs the NHS 13 times the amount it spends on the average contraceptive user per year. The Copenhagen Consensus, a think-tank, estimates that making contraception and sexual-health advice universally available would bring returns worth $120 for every $1 spent, mostly by reducing deaths in pregnancy and childbirth in poor countries.
From a new McKinsey Global Institute report,
Refugees might be the face of migration in the media, but 90 percent of the world’s 247 million migrants have moved across borders voluntarily, usually for economic reasons. Voluntary migration flows are typically gradual, placing less stress on logistics and on the social fabric of destination countries than refugee flows. Most voluntary migrants are working-age adults, a characteristic that helps raise the share of the population that is economically active in destination countries.
These voluntary movements have potentially large benefits,
Moving more labor to higher-productivity settings boosts global GDP. Migrants of all skill levels contribute to this effect, whether through innovation and entrepreneurship or through freeing up natives for higher-value work. In fact, migrants make up just 3.4 percent of the world’s population, but MGI’s research finds that they contribute nearly 10 percent of global GDP. They contributed roughly $6.7 trillion to global GDP in 2015—some $3 trillion more than they would have produced in their origin countries. Developed nations realize more than 90 percent of this effect.
Much depends on integration,
Realizing the benefits of immigration hinges on how well new arrivals are integrated into their destination country’s labor market and into society. Today immigrants tend to earn 20 to 30 percent less than native-born workers. But if countries narrow that wage gap to just 5 to 10 percent by integrating immigrants more effectively across various aspects of education, housing, health, and community engagement, they could generate an additional boost of $800 billion to $1 trillion to worldwide economic output annually. This is a relatively conservative goal, but it can nevertheless produce broader positive effects, including lower poverty rates and higher overall productivity in destination economies.